Here are the three primary editions of Windows Server 2016, based on organization size as well as virtualization and datacenter requirements:
Datacenter edition is ideal for highly virtualized and software-defined datacenter environments. Datacenter edition includes additional features such as Shielded Virtual Machines, software-defined networking, Storage Spaces Direct, and Storage Replica.
Standard edition is ideal for customers with low density or non-virtualized environments with features including Host Guardian Service and Nano Server.
Essentials edition is a cloud-connected first server, ideal for small businesses with up to 25 users and 50 devices. Essentials is a good option for customers currently using the Foundation edition, which is not available with Windows Server 2016.